Studies on the Human Ear
Studies on the Human Ear

Notes

Human Ear Cover

Studies on the Human Ear was first presented at Habitat Institute in Belmont, Massachusetts in October 1993, as part of a series of five programs presented by different artists under the overall title Nature and Inquiry. An abridged text was spoken aloud by the composer, and was accompanied by visual materials (a variety of images and three-dimensional model) which were used to reinforce the information presented in the text.

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDIES

THE FIRST STUDY (General Description)

Introduction

General Definition 2
The Position of the Ears 2
General Description of the Parts of the Ear 3
General Functions 3
The Threshold of Hearing 4
The Duration of Sound in the Ears 6
The Involuntary Protection of the Ear 7
Sounds Created Within the Human Body 7
Extending the Limits of Human Hearing 8
Final Remarks 8

THE SECOND STUDY (The Outer Ear)

Introduction

The Outer Ear 10
The External Ear 11
The Auditory Canal 12
The Amplification of Sound in the Outer Ear 12
Resonance 12
The Natural Tuning of the Ears 13
Binaural Hearing 14
Binaural Location and Directionality 14
Final Remarks 16

THE THIRD STUDY (The Middle Ear)

Introduction

The Middle Ear 19
The Eardrum 20
The Ossicular Chain 21
The Oval Window 22
The Round Window 22
The Transfer of Sound Across the Middle Ear 22
The Eustachian Tube 23
The Middle Ear Cavity 23
The Equalization of Air Pressure in the Middle Ear Cavity 23
The Amplification of Sound in the Middle Ear 24
The Attenuation of Sound in the Middle Ear 25
The Middle Ear Muscles 25
Musical Tones Created in the Ear 26
Final Remarks 27

THE FOURTH STUDY (The Inner Ear)

Introduction

The Inner Ear 29
The Vestibule 29
The Cochlea 30
The Oval Window 31
The Round Window 31
The Path of Sound in the Inner Ear 31
The Cochlear Canals 32
The Cochlear Membranes 32
The Organ of Corti 33
The Traveling Wave 33
The Acoustic Analyzer 35
Hair Cells 36
The Cilia 37
The Body of the Hair Cell 38
The Base of the Hair Cell 39
The Inner Hair Cells 39
The Outer Hair Cells 40
Summary of the Hair Cells 41
The Cochlear Neurons 42
The Acoustic Nerve 43
The Cochlear Nucleus 43
The Semicircular Canals 44
The Otolith Organs 45
Final Remarks 45

THE FIFTH STUDY (General Interests and Concerns)

Introduction

The Evolution of the Ear 48
Hearing in Other Animals 49
Hearing Problems Caused by Birth Defects, Injury and Disease 51
Hearing Loss 52
Final Remarks 53

STUDIES ON THE HUMAN EAR is available for order through
Spectrum Music (781-862-0088).